~Early Days Of Keighley~

 

 

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Copyright Chatsworth House

Map from 1612, the writing in red says "The High Field".

Close inspection show that down what we have come to know as Change Gate & Low Street is lined with crofters dwellings.

1771 Jefferys map. The map does not give us a complete image of the true size of Keighley. We know that people were living in the Greengate area in the 1600's but there is no sign on the map of any  habitation north of the beck and West of the River Worth and suspect that the placement of dark areas is purly show that an area was habited rather than a representation of actual buildings.

Sandywood house stood before being demolished at the top of Alice Street with the junction of Skipton Road and was here long before North Street and Skipton Road were built, this would have been the last house before leaving the town on the road that would have gone approximately along Cook Lane and Lord Street, and then up Spring Gardens Lane, and was used as a landmark by people when giving directions. 

We find the first reference to the house in 1720 by John Warburton who describes the way out of Keighley as from the Cross, along Cook Lane past Mr. Blakies house at Townfield Gate (north Street did not exist until 1786) and then to Sandywood House. It is also mentioned in the Kings Highway in Craven that tells us that the route to and out of Keighley was down Park Lane, Coney Lane to around the area that Fleece Street would later be and on to and past Sandy Wood House and Delf Close Gate at the foot of Spring Gardens Lane.

1848 map

Keighley was first recorded in William the Conqueror's Domesday Book in 1086: 

"Manor in Utelai (Utley or Utta's clearing) William had one carucate to be taxed
Two Manors in Chichleai (Keighley) Ulchel, and Thole and Ravensuar, and William had six carucates to be taxed".
"Manor in Wilsedene (Wilsden) Gamelbar had three carucates to be taxed
"Manor in Acarde (Oakworth or Oak-tree enclosure) Gamelbar and William had one carucates to be taxed"
"Manor in Lacoc, (Laycock or small stream) Ravensuar had two carucates to be taxed".
The "berewick" in Newhuse (Newsholme or new houses) William had one carucate to be taxed
"Ardulf, one at Riddensden (Rethel's valley)--- probably the dame Ardulf who, with four carucates at Morton (moorland farmstead), ranked as the locality's biggest landowners;
whilst Ernegis had one at Marley (a clearing frequented by marines) and a half at Hainworth (Hagen's enclosure) and the phrase "and they are waste" which must refer to lands that were not worth taxing either because they were unproductive or had been destroyed by the "Conqueror's" army."

William Keighley said, " When William the Conqueror devastated Yorkshire and Durham by fire and sword, he issued a decree forbidding any Englishman, on pain of death, to burn a light in his dwelling after the bell had told the curfew, or cover-fire. Until 1857 we kept up the memory of the tyrannical law, by tolling the curfew-bell at eight o'clock in the evening."

Over 200 years later, on 17th October 1305, King Edward I granted the privilege to Henry de Kighley (Keighley) a market charter to "hold a Market, Fair, and Free Warren in Keighley".

In 1379 109 people lived in Keighley   In 1820 9,223 people lived in Keighley

The Keighley family
A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 7 (1912), pp. 279-82

INSKIP-WITH-SOWERBY
Inscip, Dom. Bk.; Inskyp, 1246; Insckyp, 1285; Ineskyp, 1331.
Sorbi, Dom. Bk.; Soureby, 1256.
This township has a total area of 2,979½ acres,  of which Inskip proper has 2,046, Sowerby 868½, and Carr House Green Common. The north and east portions are flat and lie low, but the south-west quarter has two rather higher plateaux, 50 ft. above sea level, divided by a small valley running from west to east. On the more northerly of these elevations stands the village of Inskip; the southerly contains Higham. Crossmoor lies on the western border; Sowerby is in the lower land to the east. There was a population of 450 in 1901.
The principal road goes north-west and west from Woodplumpton, through the village of Inskip to Elswick and Singleton, with two branches going north by Sowerby and by Inskip to St. Michael's, and another south-west through Higham to Wharles and Kirkham.
There is a parish council.
The soil is light and peaty, with subsoil gravel. Wheat and oats are grown. Rush wicks were formerly made in Sowerby.
Manors
Though INSKIP, assessed as two plough-lands, is named in Domesday Book among the manors of Earl Tostig in 1066,  its subsequent history is very obscure. In the 13th century it seems to have been held by the Carleton family,  and to have been joined to their part of Great Eccleston. Walter son of Sir William de Carleton about 1280 granted his son William the homage and service of Sir Richard le Boteler for his tenement in Inskip and Eccleston.  In 1285 Henry de Kighley and Ellen his wife obtained from Alice widow of Richard le Boteler the manor of Inskip and two-thirds of the manor of Great Eccleston.  Henry de Kighley was knight of the shire in 1297, 1298 and 1301.  Sir Richard de Kighley in 1330 settled the manor of Inskip and other estates, with succession to his son Gilbert and his heirs by Clemency his wife. 
Gilbert de Kighley appears to have had a son Sir Henry,  whose three sons John, Hugh and Richard were in the remainder to 'Nicholas Manor' in Tyldesley in 1385.  Of these Richard  is probably the knight who was slain at Agincourt, 1415.  and was followed by a son Henry,  who occurs down to 1446.  Then came another Richard, described as son and heir of Henry in 1467.  Sir Henry Kighley  died in 1526 holding the manor of Inskip with messuages and lands in Inskip and Eccleston of the heir of Richard Eccleston in socage by the rent of a barbed arrow. His grandson Henry Kighley, aged thirty, was his heir.  The heir, who recorded a pedigree in 1533,  left a son Henry, who was dead in 1554, when his heir was a son also named Henry.  This Henry Kighley proved to be the last of his name; he died in July 1567, leaving two daughters as heirs—Anne, aged four years, and Katherine, aged four months.  The former married William Cavendish, ancestor of the Dukes of Devonshire, and the latter married Thomas Worsley of Booths.  On partition the manor of Inskip was allotted to the former,  and descended in the main line until 1819, when it was given to a younger branch,  and so descended to the trustees of the Earl of Burlington, who, with the Hon. Charles Compton Cavendish, in 1843  sold it to the thirteenth Earl of Derby, whose successor is now lord of Inskip and Great Eccleston. Manor courts are held. 

Kighley was long the manor and residence of a knightly family of its own name, one of whom "Gilbertus Kyghlay, of Utley," was buried here in 1203, as appears by an inscription on a gravestone, still remaining in the church. Henry Kighley procured from Edward 1, for this, his manor, the privileges of a market, fair, and free-warrren. A daughter and co-heiress of the last Henry Keighley carried the manor, in marriage, to Wm. Cavendish, who was created Baron Cavendish of Hardwick in 1604, and from whom the Duke of Devonshire and the Earl of Burlington are descended; the former being now patron of the rectory, and the latter lord of the manor, for which he holds a court leet, in November, and a court baron on every third Thursday, at the Devonshire Arms Inn.

Sir Henry Kighly is said to have commanded the bowman of the English army against the Scots at the Battle of Flodden Field, 1513 in conjunction with Sir William Stanley and Sir William Molyneux.

Feet of Fines of the Tudor period 

Plaintiffs Deforciants Nature and Situation of the Property
1562—MICHAELMAS TERM, 4 & 5 ELIZABETH.
William Currer Henry Nevell, kt., and Elizabeth his wife 2 messuages with lands in Kighley..
1566–7—HILARY TERM, 9 ELIZABETH
Walter Calverley, esq., John Lacye, esq., and William Hawkesworth, esq., and Thomas Wentworth, esq. Francis Paslewe Manors of Ryddelsden, Exley, and Harden, and 60 messuages, 20 cottages, 3 watermills, and 3 fulling mills with lands in the same and in Kyghley, Morton, Marley, Byngley, Laycocke, Scoles, Okeworth, Presthorpe, and Lees.
1568—EASTER TERM, 10 ELIZABETH.
William Clough and John Rawson Francis Paslewe, esq., and Isabel his wife, and Walter Paslewe, his son and heir apparent, and Elena, wife of Walter Messuage with lands in Exley in the parish of Kighley, to be held to the said Walter from the Feast of Pentecost next, to the 20th of February next following the death of Francis, when they remain to George Clapham for a term of 44 years, at an annual rent of 45s.
1568–9—Hilary Term, 11 Elizabeth.
William Clough Thomas Fairfax, esq. 5 messuages with lands in New Esham and Kighley.
1571.—TRINITY TERM, 13 ELIZABETH
John Paslewe, gent. Francis Paslewe, esq., and Walter Paslewe his son and heir apparent Manor of Exley and 18 messuages and 2 cottages with lands in Exley and Keighley
John Houlmes Francis Paslewe, esq., and Isabel his wife, and Walter Paslewe, his son and heir apparent Messuage with lands in Kigheley
Robert Houmes Robert Risheworth and Elena his wife, and William Dobson and Elizabeth his wife 3 messuages and 3 cottages with lands in Ilgeley and Okeworth
John Rawlinge Francis Paslewe and Isabel his wife, and Walter Paslewe, his son and heir apparent 2 messuages with lands in Kigheley
1572.—TRINITY TERM, 14 ELIZABETH.
John Fell John Paslewe, gent., and Johanna his wife, and Walter Paslewe, gent. Messuage with lands in Kighley.
1572–3.—HILARY TERM, 15 ELIZABETH.
George Clapham, John Clapham, William Rawson, and John Sugden John Paslewe, gent., and Johanna his wife, and Walter Paslewe and Elena his wife 3 messuages with lands in Kighley and Exleymore
1573.—TRINITY TERM, 15 ELIZABETH.
William Butterfeld Francis Paslewe, esq., and Elizabeth his wife, and Walter Paslewe, his son and heir apparent, and Edmund Paslewe, a younger son of Francis Messuage and 2 cottages with lands in Kighley.
Robert Lacocke, William Illyngworth, John Illyngworth, Thomas Illyngworth, Thomas Wilkynson, and William Wilson Francis Paslewe, esq., and Elizabeth his wife, and Walter Paslewe, his son and heir apparent 6 messuages and 2 cottages with lands in Hardinge and Kighley in the parish of Byngley
1573.—MICHAELMAS TERM, 15 & 16 ELIZABETH.
Henry Towneley and Thomas Mawde, esqs. John Paslewe, gent. 4 messuages, 4 cottages, 2 watermills for grain, and a fulling mill with lands in Riddlesden, Morton, and Kighley.
1574.—EASTER TERM, 16 ELIZABETH.
Hugh Laycocke and Matilda Laycocke, widow John Paslewe, gent., and Jenetta his wife Manor of Exley and 10 messuages and 8 cottages with lands in Kighley, Exley, and Laycocke
William Savile John Paslewe, gent., and Jenetta his wife 6 messuages, a cottage, and a watermill with lands in Harden, Byngley, and Kighley.
Gilbert Drake John Paslewe, gent., and Jenetta his wife 3 messuages and the moiety of a messuage, cottage, and fulling mill with lands in Harden, Kighley, and Byngley.
Martin Birkhead, gent. John Paslewe, gent., and Jenetta his wife Manor of Harden and 40 messuages and 6 cottages with lands in Harden, Bynglay, [M?]arlay, and Kighley.
Robert Hall, gent, William Hall, William Sugden, and Miles Hall Edmund Paslew, gent. 4 messuages and 2 cottages with lands in Kighley and Kighley mores.
Anthony Rogers Francis Paslew, esq., and Elizabeth his wife, and Walter Paslew, gent. 2 messuages and a cottage with lands in Woodhowse and Kighleye more.
1581.—HILARY TERM, 24 ELIZABETH
Edmund Laycocke, son and heir apparent of Hugh Laycocke, John Procter, gent., and Anthony Watson, gent. The same Hugh Laycocke, and Matilda Laycocke, widow Manor of Exley, and 26 messuages and a watermill with lands in Exley, Lacocke, Collinghead, Sliddereyford als. Slyddereford, Damenis, and Collynge
1581.—MICHAELMAS TERM, 23 & 24 ELIZABETH.
John Leach, Anthony Fell, John Hall, and John Haighe Arthur Mawde als. Mahawnte, esq., and Christopher Mawde als. Mahawnte gent. 3 messuages and a cottage with lands in West Morton, Morton Banks, and Kighley.
1589.—EASTER TERM, 31 ELIZABETH.
John Hudson John Butterfelde 2 messuages with lands in Kighley.
Richard Sunderland, gent. John Cosyn and Margaret his wife 5 messuages with lands in Kighley.
1591.—TRINITY TERM, 33 ELIZABETH.
Francis Morley, gent., and John Tayler, gent. George, Earl of Cumberland, and Margaret his wife Manors of Skipton, Barden, Bolton, Halton, Syllesden, Embsaye, Eastbye, Sturton, Thorlebye, Flasbye, Gargrave, and—, and 2000 messuages and 10 mills with lands and a rental of 400 hens in the same and in Broghton, Skybden, Holme, Malhame, Mallomore, Sutton, and Carleton, the advowson of Kighley church, and a fourth part of the manors of Hawkesweke and Ulcotes, and of 40 messuages with lands in the same.
1591.—MICHAELMAS TERM, 33 & 34 ELIZABETH.
John Shakelton Humphrey Longbothome, John Oldefeild, and Elena his wife 2 messuages with lands in Kighley.
1593.—EASTER TERM, 35 ELIZABETH.
John Woodcocke and Peter Kighleye Thomas Worsley, esq., and Katherine his wife Manor of Kighley and 200 messuages, 5 watermills, and 4 windmills with lands, the fairs, markets, and frank pledge in the same.
John Woodcocke and Peter Kighley William Cavendishe, esq., and Ann his wife Manor of Kighley and 200 messuages, 5 watermills, and 4 windmills with lands, the fairs, markets, and frank pledge in the same.
1594–5.—HILARY TERM, 37 ELIZABETH.
Richard Moore, senr., Richard Moore, junr., Edward Moore, Robert Rawson, senr., Robert Rawson, junr., Edward Wright, and James Smythe Edward Copley, esq., and Dorothy his wife 8 messuages, 8 cottages, and a watermill with lands in Okeworth and Kighleye. A warrant against Alvered Copley, esq., and his heirs, Alvered Copley, esq., the father of Edward, and his heirs, and Grace Copley, the wife of Alvered, the father.
1595.—TRINITY TERM, 37 ELIZABETH.
James Smythe and Thomas Woller Thomas Worsley, esq., and Katherine his wife 2 messuages with lands in Kighley.
1596.—EASTER TERM, 38 ELIZABETH
Edward Wright, John Roper, and Robert Roper Hugh Laycocke and Elizabeth his wife and Edmond Laycocke and Margaret his wife 3 messuages and 3 cottages with lands in Keighley and Branshaymoore als. Exleymoore.

1596.—MICHAELMAS TERM, 38 & 39 ELIZABETH

Christopher Roper, Robert Roper, John Shakelton, and Michael Pollard Hugh Laycocke and Elizabeth his wife and Edmond Laycocke, his son and heir apparent, and Margaret his wife, and Elizabeth Swayne 2 messuages with lands in Laycocke and Kyghley, and a third part of a messuage with lands in Horton in Bradford Dale
1596–7.—HILARY TERM, 39 ELIZABETH.
Henry Ekenfeild and James Hallom Thomas Worsley, esq., and Katherine his wife Manor of Kighley and 60 messuages and a watermill with lands, the fairs, markets, and frank pledge there, excepting one messuage with certain lands.
1597.—MICHAELMAS TERM, 39 & 40 ELIZABETH.
Anthony Walker Thomas Asteley, esq., and Margery his wife Manor of Bingley and 12 messuages, 12 cottages, a watermill, and a fulling mill with lands in Bingley, Micklethwaite, Gilsteade, —, Thwaites, Kighley, Morton, Hanworthe Lees, Newbigginge als. Stothill, Collinge, and Kildwick, and the frank pledge in the same. A warrant against the heirs of Gilbert Astley, deceased, the father, and Thomas Astley, the grandfather of Thomas, and his heirs.
1597–8.—HILARY TERM, 40 ELIZABETH.
Miles Hartley and Robert Harper John Fowler and Matilda his wife Messuage and 2 cottages with lands in Kighley.

Journal of the House of Lords: volume 9: 1646 (1802), pp. 636-39

"Whereas Henry Slaughter, of Keighley, in the County of Yorke, Gentleman, hath by both Houses of Parliament been admitted to his Fine of One Hundred and Thirty Pounds, he having been in Arms against the Parliament: The Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament do hereby authorize and appoint His Majesty's Solicitor General to prepare a Pardon to the said Henry Slaughter, for his said Offence, in such Form as is agreed by both Houses for like Offenders, together with a Grant of, and Restitution to him, his Heirs and Assigns, of all his Lands, Goods, and Chattels, and other Estate for which the said Fine was accepted, according to a Particular thereof made, and entered with the Committee at Gouldsmiths Hall, and of all Mean Profits thereof, from the 14th Day of March, 1645, with an Exception of the Right or Estate of the said Henry Slaughter in or to all Advowsons, Presentations, and Right of Patronage, to any Church or Chapel; which said Pardon, so prepared, the Commissioners for the Great Seal of England are hereby likewise authorized to pass under the said Great Seal accordingly: Provided always, That this Ordinance, or the said Pardon thereon to be passed, shall not extend to free the said Henry Slaughter from a further Composition, for any other Lands, Goods, or Chattels, than what are contained in the Particular aforesaid; and that, in case the said Lands mentioned in the said Particular were of greater Yearly Value than are therein expressed during Three Years before the Year of our Lord 1640, then the said Henry Slaughter shall pay such further Fine, by Way of Composition, as both Houses of Parliament shall appoint."


A Topographical Dictionary of England (1848), pp. 640-43.

KEIGHLEY (St. Andrew), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 44 miles (W. by S.) from York, and 210 (N. N. W.) from London; containing 13,413 inhabitants.
This place, anciently Kyghelay, was for many generations the property of the Kyghelay family, who either gave their name to, or derived it from, the manor; and of whom Gilbertus Kyghelay, of Utley, was buried here in 1203, according to an inscription on a stone still remaining in the parish church. In the reign of Edward I. Henry de Kyghelay, a member of the family, obtained the grant of a weekly market and an annual fair, with privilege of free warren for the inhabitants.
Towards the close of the sixteenth century, the manor was conveyed, by marriage with the heiress of the last lord, to William Cavendish, created Baron Cavendish, of Hardwick, in 1604, and who was ancestor of the dukes of Devonshire and earls of Burlington. In the reign of Charles I., the town was garrisoned for the parliament, and (in 1645) was attacked by a party of royalists from Skipton Castle, who made many of the republicans prisoners; they were rescued, however, by General Lambert, who, advancing to their relief, compelled the royalists to retire.
The town is situated in a beautiful valley, near the rivulets Worth and North Beck, which, uniting their streams, flow into the river Aire, about a mile below the bridge here, which is a neat structure. The houses are built chiefly of stone. The streets are paved, and lighted with gas from works erected under an act of parliament, obtained in 1824, for the improvement of the town; and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water from copious springs in the vicinity, conveyed by works established under an act  in 1816.
A mechanics' institution was founded in 1825, and in 1835 an appropriate building was erected for its use, at an expense of £1050, of which £200 were raised by subscription, and the remainder by a proprietary; the building contains a reading-room, a spacious lecture-room, and a library of 1000 volumes.
The worsted manufacture is carried on extensively; and there are two establishments for cotton-spinning, one of them erected about 1780, by Sir Richard Arkwright: a great part of the machinery used in the factories is made in the town; there are two paper-mills, and several large corn-mills. The worsted-stuffs are chiefly sent to the Bradford market. The Leeds and Liverpool canal passes within a mile, and, in connection with other lines, opens a direct communication through Yorkshire and Lancashire with the eastern and western sea-ports. The Leeds and Bradford Extension railway, which connects the West riding with the town of Colne, in Lancashire, was opened as far as Keighley, in March, 1847.
The market, which is abundantly supplied with provisions of all kinds, is on Wednesday, and there is a market for cattle every alternate Tuesday; fairs for cattle and merchandise are held on the 8th and 9th of May, and the 7th, 8th, and 9th of November. A very commodious market-place was erected in 1833, on land owned by the lord of the manor, by a proprietary of £25 shareholders. Petty-sessions are held on the last Wednesday in every month, in the court-house, a neat building erected at an expense of £700, in 1831. The powers of the county debt-court of Keighley, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Keighley. The town is a polling place for the West riding of the county.
The parish comprises about 10,160 acres, of which 2000 are peat moor; the soil in the valleys is rich, and in profitable cultivation. The surface is diversified with hills, and the low grounds are watered by numerous rapid streams, descending from the moors, and winding their course into the river Aire; the rugged summits of the hills, the acclivities of which are covered with blue heath, contrast finely with the luxuriant verdure of the vales, and the view of the town, as seen from the several heights, is strikingly romantic. The substratum is partly of the coal formation, alternated with sandstone; and near the town are found large blocks of granite, deeply imbedded in the soil. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £21. 0. 7½., and in the gift of the Duke of Devonshire: the tithes have been commuted for £220, and the glebe comprises 25 acres.
The church, an ancient structure modernised in 1710, was rebuilt in 1807, and again very recently. A church, dedicated to St. John, was erected in 1841, at Paper-Mill Bridge, about a mile from the town, on the Halifax road, at an expense of £2500, towards which a society granted £400, and the Earl of Burlington gave the site and £100; it is a neat structure in the Norman style, with a tower, after a design by Mr. Rawstorne, of Bradford, and contains 750 sittings. The living is in the gift of the Bishop of Ripon. Two Church districts, named respectively Eastwood and Oakworth, were formed in 1844, and endowed by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The church for the latter district, called Christ church, was consecrated in November, 1846, and is in the style prevailing in the 12th century; the sittings are all free. Each of the two livings is in the alternate gift of the Crown and the Bishop. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Primitive Methodists, Swedenborgians, and Wesleyans, and a Roman Catholic chapel.
The free grammar school was founded, and endowed with a house and garden for the master, and with other houses and lands now producing £162 per annum, by John Drake. Adjoining is a preparatory school, the master of which has a salary of £40, arising from a house and land bequeathed by Jonas Tonson, in 1716. Isaac Bowcock, of Tong, in 1669, bequeathed property now yielding £320 yearly, for apprenticing children, and for distribution among the poor. The union of Keighley contains a population of 36,175, and comprises 6 parishes or places.